The hide (skin or pelt) of the buffalo can be made into tough rawhide or soft leather, depending on what it will be used for.
To prepare the hide, a Plains woman would:
1. Spread the hide on the grass and pin it down, stretched out, with wooden stakes.
2. Scrape off all the blood, fat, and meat still clinging to the hide with a fleshing tool made of animal bone and notched at one end to form scraping teeth.
3. Leave the hide out to dry.
Later, if she wanted to, she could:
4. Make the hide thinner by using a scraper ( a tool made of bone or antler with a sharp stone or metal blade attached to it).
5. Remove the hair on the other side with the scraper.
Left like this, the hide made a tough rawhide.
To soften the hide into leather, she would:
6. Work on the hide in several ways: rub a mixture or animal brain and fat into the hide with a smooth stone, rub the hide with a bone tool, stretch the hide with her hands while holding it down with her foot, or rub it back and forth over the rawhide thong.